Jute crop, is very much influenced by
environmental factors like climatic conditions of temperature, rainfall,
humidity, soil structure, retting water etc. to a great extent.
Jute crop, which occupies the land for about four months, is very much influenced by
environmental factors like climatic conditions of temperature, rainfall, humidity, soil structure, retting water etc. to a great extent.
Jute cultivation involves various agricultural practices viz. sowing, weeding, harvesting, defoliation, retting, extraction, washing and drying for production of jute fibre.
Jute crop thrives with rain and sunshine. The jute belt in India and Bangladesh, which are the major producers of jute, has a natural bounty of appropriate rain and sunshine.
In India and Bangladesh the climate during jute season is characterised by moderate and warm humid atmosphere, which allows jute cultivation with low investments.
The total amount of rain and its distribution have marked bearings on the various intercultural
operations and also on the growth and yield of the fibre. In the ideal situation pre-monsoon rain starts about the middle of March and totals 150 mm to 120 mm spread over 15-20 days. The pre-monsoon is followed by a dry period, which may cover 30 to 40 days. Ideally, light rains at intervals of 10 days or so suit the seedlings growing.
The third phase or monsoon should have 1200 to 1500 mm of precipitation distributed over 75 to 80 days. Strong sunshine and moderately strong wind alternating with rains are conducive to good growth, and are available in the eastern region.
Jute plant, which requires a warm humid climate for matured growth, survives between 17°C and 41.5°C. It thrives at 34°C±2.0°C but the growth is impeded when temperature exceeds or falls below this range. The minimum and maximum soil temperature at 5 cm depth during March are 19.7°C and 38.8°C respectively.
During April and May the maximum temperature is tolerated at
42.4°C while the soil temperature during the monsoon is reduced to usual range
between 21.1°C to
There are three broad groups of soils used for jute cultivation in Indo-Bangladesh region: new or gray
alluvium, alluvium transported from lateritic areas, and red or lateric soils. New or
gray alluvium soil is formed by fresh deposits of silts from the rivers due to flood or fluvial action. Such soil is extremely fertile. In the region of North Bengal, Assam and Bangladesh, which are annually flooded, 1 cm acre soil contains
roughly 400 kg. Nitrogen, 133 kg of Phosphate and 200 kg of Potash. Using a little fertiliser only the farmers of these regions produce good quality fibre at 15-22 Q/ha yield with native fertility.
The soil, alluvium transported from lateritic areas represents jute soils which consist of clay and silt in different proportions. The soil is deficient in calcium, postassium and nitrogen with the pH value varying from
5.4 to 6.2. Liberal manure and fertiliser application is necessary for good jute crop in such soil The red soil occurring in some parts of Burdwan and Cuttack, Balasore is not congenial to intercultural operations. The soils are deficient in nitrogen and good jute crop is not possible without manure and fertiliser application. The pH value ranges between 4.8 and 5.8. jute cultivation in red soils requires high dose manuring and balanced application of N, P and K as well
as continuous application of lime.