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Jute Manufacturing  in Jute Mills

Raw jute in the form of bales are processed in jute mills to produce hessian, sacking, jute yarn, bags, and other useful products.  Raw jute bales from jute fields or suppliers, carried by trucks are unloaded are stacked in the jute mills gowdown.  The production of jute goods from raw jute processing involves the following steps:


Selection :

In the selection process, raw jute bales are opened to find out any defect and to remove the defective portion from the mora by experienced workers.  Raw jute bales are of two types i.e. 150 kg weight and 180 kg weight with or without top portion cutting.  The bales are assorted according to end use like Hessiean weft, Sacking wrap, Sacking weft etc.  After selection, jute bales are carried to softning section by workers called Gariwala and Bajawala.


Jute  Processing Chart


Selection,  Softening  &  Piling,  Carding


Drawing &   Doubling, Spinning, winding, Beaming/Dressing


Weaving, Damping & Calendering, Lapping,  Cutting etc.


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Softning :

In softning process jute morahs are made soft and pileable.  Two methods are used for softning; use of softning machine and use of jute good spreader.  Generally an emulsion plant with jute softner machine is used to lubricate and soften the bark and gummy raw jute.  The emulsion plant consists of gear pump, motor, vat, jet sprayer, nozzles, emulsion tank and the jacket.  In this softning process jute becomes soft and pileable and suitable for carding.

Piling and pile Breaking :

The main function of pile breaker is to break the pile and serve it to the carding machines.  The softner machine out put material carried by pilemen through a bile to the pile place for pilling.  During piling a superficial moisture penetrates inside fibre and "Thermo fillic" action take place which softner the hard portion of the root.  After piling for nearly 24 hours the pile breakers carry the material to the carding machine.
Generally root cutting is done after piling near the hand feed breaker carding machine.  The root weight varies from 5 to 7% of the total weight of jute.

Carding :

Carding is a combining operation where jute reeds are splitted and extraneous matters are removed.  Jute fibres are formed into ribbon called "sliver".  There are three different carding sections: (i) breaker carding (ii) inner carding (iii) and finisher carding

Breaker Carding :

In different jute mills the carding operations has been carried out in two ways:
    a. Hand feed breaker carding
    b. Rool feed breaker carding

The material after piling more than 24 hours is used in hand feed breaker where the material after piling for 12 hours used in the rool feed carding.
In the Breaker carding machine soften jute after piling is feed by hand in suitable weight.  The machine by action with different rollers turns out raw jute in the form of jute sliver for finisher carding.  In this process root cutting is necessary before feeding the material to the hand feed breaker carding machine.

Finisher Carding :

Finisher carding machine make the sliver more uniform and regular in length and weight obtained from the Breaker carding machine.  Finisher carding machine is identical to the Breaker carding machine, having more pair of rollers, staves, pinning arrangement and speed.  Nearly 4 to 12 slivers obtained from Breaker carding machine is fed on this machine.  The material thus obtained is send to drawing section.

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