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Drawing :

Drawing is a process for reducing sliver width and thickness by simultaneously mixing 4 to 6 sliver together.  There are three types of Drawing Frame machine.  In most mills 3 Drawing passages are used in Hessian and 2 Drawing passages are used in Sacking. 

First Drawing : 

The slivers obtained from finisher carding machine is fed with four slivers on to the first drawing frame machine.  The first drawing frame machines makes blending, equalising the sliver and doubling two or more slivers, level and provide quality and colour.  This  machines includes delivery roller, pressing roller, retaining roller, faller screw sliders, check spring, back spring, crimpling box etc..

Second Drawing :

In second drawing, the Second Drawing Frame machine obtain the sliver from the First drawing machine and use six slivers and deliveries per head.  The Second Drawing machine makes more uniform sliver and reduce the jute into a suitable size for third drawing.


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Selection,  Softening  &  Piling,  Carding


Drawing &   Doubling, Spinning, winding, Beaming/Dressing


Weaving, Damping & Calendering, Lapping,  Cutting etc.


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Third Drawing :

In the third drawing, the Third Drawing frame machine uses the sliver from second drawing.  The Third Drawing machine is of high speed makes the sliver more crimpled  and suitable for spinning. The comparison of the three drawing process:

Drawing Process

Efficiency Range (%)

Productivity Mt/mc/shift
Ist Drawing 55 - 73 1.75 - 2.2
IInd Drawing 64 - 74 1.62 - 1.9
IIIrd Drawing 67 - 70 1.31 - 1.4

Spinning :

Spinning is the process for producing yarn from sliver obtained from Third drawing. 
In the spinning process slivers are elongated and fibres are twisted into yarn to impart strength.  spun yarns in the spinning process are wound onto Bobbins.  after to fill the empty bobbins with yarn machine is stopped, replace these bobbins by empty bobbins.  The entire time is called an average cycle time.  The time for replacing the bobbins full of yarn by empty bobbins is called softing time.

The jute spinning frame machine is fitted with slip draft zone and capable of producing quality yarns at high efficiency with auto-dofting arrangements also. A 4', pithch slip-draft sliver frames available of 20 spindles 100 spindles, having a production range 8 uls to 28 uls with a flyer speed of 3200 to 4000 RPM. Spinning of several types of yarn is processed by spinning frame machine usingdifferent kinds of bobbins, such as: Food Grade HCF, Sacking Wrap, Hessian Wrap, Hessian Weft. 

Winding :

Winding is a process which provides yarn as spools and cops for the requirement of beaming and weaving operations.  There are two types of winding : 
            (i) Spool Winding
               (ii) and Cope Winding

(i) Spool Winding  

In Spool Winding yarn is produces for warp (the longitudinal yarn).  Spool winding machine consists of a number of spindles.  There is wide variation in the number of spindles per machines from one make to another.  Productivity of spool winding depends on the surface speed of the spindle and machine utilisation.

Spool winding machine uses the bobbins contain smaller length of yarn.  This machine wound the yarn into bigger packages known as 'spool'. The Spool are used in making sheets of yarn to form warp portion used during interleecment of weaving.

(ii) Cop Winding

Cop Winding  machine obtain yarns from the spinning machines.  The spinning bobbins is placed on a suitable pin on top of the cop machine and yarn tension is  maintained by means of a small leaver.  The yarn on the bobbins are cnverted into hollow cylindrical package said to be cop.  The cop is used to form Transverse thread during interlacement of weaving.  Generally a cop winding machines consist 120 spindles.

Beaming :

Beaming process is follows after spool winding.  In Beaming operation yarn from spool is wounded over a beam of proper width and correct number of ends to weave jute cloth.  To increase the quality of woven cloth and weaving efficiency, the wrap yarns are coated with starch paste.  Adequate moisture is essential in this process.

Quality characteristic of a beam is width of beam - number of ends and weight of stand and there is a continuous passage of yarn through starch solution from spools to the beam.

Strach solution in water contains tamerine kernel powder (TKP), antiseptic - sodium silica fluride
(NaSiF4) and its concentration varies with the quality of yarn.

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